The Business Review, Cambridge
The Business Review Journal
Vol. 27 * Number 1 * Summer 2019
The Library of Congress, Washington, DC * ISSN 1553 - 5827
Online Computer Library Center * OCLC: 920449522
National Library of Australia * NLA: 55269788
The Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI,
Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Journal
Refereed Academic Journal
All submissions are subject to a double blind review process
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Understanding Consumer Perception and Behavior of Smartphone Application
Dr. Nasim Z. Hosein, Northwood University, Midland, Michigan
Protecting individual’s security threats is a multidimensional problem involving human and technological factors. Although multiple security applications (apps) are offered by third-party developers for free, only a small portion of smart device users have adopted these apps. This study investigates how smartphone users’ security-related decisions are influenced by their attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of various security threats. This research seeks to provide quantified insights into smartphone users’ behavior toward multiple key personal security features including calling a tow truck, calling for a secure ride, identifying personal features and smartphone alarm services. This research also provides evidence that making correct security decisions might not necessarily relate with individuals’ awareness of the significances of security threats. On the basis of our findings and the results presented in the paper are the factors that might influence smartphone users’ security behaviors as well as what they perceive to be needed security features. Cell phones have improved the communication among people over the past decade. The number of cell phone users is increasing dramatically which is also expected to continue increasing in the future. Smartphones don’t just contain e-mail functionality rather they are powerful computers that can handle multiple functions. With broad and rapid acceptance, smart devices such as smartphones and tablet computers are playing an increasingly important role in the user's daily life. A potential information and personal security issues have received some but not a great deal of attention from practitioners and academics. This research outlines the market research for a security application Last Call, the methodology, descriptive analysis, data analysis of hypothesis testing, limitations, and a detailed conclusion. The approach that was taken for our survey was simple random sampling for individuals with smartphones. The data was collected over a period of four weeks from October and November 2017. The sample portion of who was observed was chosen at random ranging from young adults to older adults, both students and nonstudents, parents and individuals with businesses. The surveys were distributed throughout several locations consisting of but not limited to towns and cities in and around Northern Michigan. Technology is constantly changing and improving, as technology gets more advanced and widespread, the demand for security apps have also risen over the years. Security apps are software applications made to be installed on the hardware, be it mobile phones, tablets or computers. These apps come in many different kinds, each with its own function and use. The most commonly known security apps are the kinds to protect the users’ hardware, these types of security apps can range from theft prevention apps, password managers, app scanner, android rooting software and even antivirus apps (Tufts, 2012). The functions of such apps are fairly straightforward, to protect the users and their devices while it is in use. They prevent unauthorized access to the device, ensure a secure connection when browsing the internet, and scan the device for any malicious software. Furthermore, some apps are even capable of clearing and cleaning out junk files and duplicate files on the device, creating extra storage and ensuring the device runs in optimal condition (Remo Software). On the other hand, the personal safety apps are another kind of security apps which are available in the app stores.
The Impact of Auditor Tenure on Audit Quality, Audit Fees, and Non-audit fees: Is Auditor Loyalty Paying Off After SOX?
Dr. David Adu-Boateng, Purdue University Global, Fort Lauderdale, FL
This paper examines the impact of audit firm tenure on audit quality, audit fees, and non-audit fees. The length of time an audit firm spends to audit a public company is significant in predicting the quality of audit work and the benefits that accrue to the client from advisory and oversight work by the external auditor. Generally, auditors need sufficient time to be familiar with their clients’ businesses, which is needed to enhance effective controls, streamline operations, ensure quality financial reporting, and reward the audit client’s loyalty with reduced cost of assignments. However, researchers debate over the need to rotate audit firms in order to improve auditor independence. Others argue that long tenure may diminish auditor independence, and in turn reduce audit quality. This study employs a multivariate regression to analyze 7,701 public companies, and finds that public firms stand to benefit from long audit firm tenure. The results indicate a positive association between audit firm tenure and the disclosure of material internal control weaknesses. The unexpected association indicates that auditors may be useful in maintaining effective internal controls (reduced disclosure) and also in discovering and reporting material control weaknesses (increased disclosure). Further, increased familiarity with the client’s business coupled with the client’s loyalty play a significant role in reducing audit and non-audit fees over time. This study explores the impact of audit firm tenure on audit quality, audit fees, and non-audit fees. An audit firm’s knowledge of a client’s business operations, acquired over time, is expected to lead to quality audits and improved financial reporting. Audit firm clients retain auditors for various reasons, including the benefits of quality audits (Blay, Geiger, & North, 2011). A client builds a relationship with the audit firm and expects to reap benefits from the long-term relationship. There is evidence that long audit tenure contributes to a decrease in the disclosure of internal control weaknesses by the audit client (Arel, Brody, & Pany, 2005; Beasley, 1996). Further, audit firms expect to reduce their audit costs as they stay longer with a client and gain comprehensive knowledge of the client’s business and the business environment. The net effect is increased audit efficiency and effectiveness. The concept of quasi rent supports this view. The auditor expects to reap benefits (quasi rent) from the invested efforts over time. Therefore, it is expected that firms will benefit from retaining auditors and improve audit quality (Geiger & Raghunandan, 2002). This paper uses the Disclosure of Internal Control Weaknesses as a proxy for audit quality (Luo & Thorton, 2013). For instance, an audit firm with sufficient knowledge of the client’s business is in a better position to assist the client in establishing sound internal controls over financial reporting (Bonner, 1994). Hence, it is expected that long auditor tenure will lead to reduced material internal control weaknesses after the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). SOX provides a landmark requirement for firms to disclose material internal control weaknesses (Raghunandan & Dasaratha, 2006). This paper examines the impact of auditor tenure on the disclosure of material internal control weaknesses after SOX. Additionally, businesses typically obtain benefits from long-term relationships with vendors and service providers. One such benefit is loyalty discount, which reduces the market price of a good or service. Extending this concept to auditor-client relationship, the loyalty discount is expected to reduce audit fees over time (Cahan, Emanuel, Hay, & Wong, 2008).
Analysis of Regional Composition of Tourism Cluster in Portugal
Antonia Tavares do Canto, University of the Azores, Portugal
Dr. Joao Pedro Couto, University of the Azores, Portugal
Tourism is an expanding economic activity both globally and particularly in Portugal. In this work, we examine differences in tourism development among Portuguese regions. The results indicate that different levels of development exist in terms of the importance of tourism to the local economy, the dynamics and evolution of tourism, the efficiency levels of business activities, and the sustainability of tourism development. This article contributes to the existing literature by proposing and testing a framework to analyze the tourism cluster in Portugal in terms of importance, dynamics, efficiency, and sustainability. Considering the benefits of clusters, numerous companies in Europe, including in Portugal, have created plans for increasing cooperation to develop and enhance their competences (Santos, 2007). Because of globalization and inherent competitiveness, the intention of these institutions is to internationalize their products and services. For this purpose, it is necessary for organizations to replace traditional economic growth models in the form of clusters to enable the development of scale and promote innovation (Costa, 2005). Although Portugal is considered an excellent tourist destination owing to its mild climate, cultural and gastronomic diversity, competent services, and skilled labor, the development of collaborative strategies is fundamental to increasing competitiveness, and studies on clusters are scarce (Estevão & Ferreira, 2012). Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the importance, dynamics, efficiency, and sustainability of the tourism cluster in Portugal. In light of the significance of the tourism sector in the national economy, the goal is to test four hypotheses. The first hypothesis analyzes the relative importance of tourism in different regions in Portugal; the second hypothesis investigates the differences in terms of the dynamics and evolution of tourism in these regions; the third hypothesis evaluates whether the performance of the tourism cluster is similar in different regions; and finally, the fourth hypothesis analyzes the sustainability of Portuguese tourism development. A cluster analysis was used to classify the regions in terms of the dimensions studied to assess the importance, dynamics, efficiency, and sustainability of the tourism cluster. The present study is divided into five sections. The first section presents a literature review of the cluster concept and the tourism cluster, with a focus on the Portuguese context. The second section presents the analysis model and the hypotheses to be tested. In the third section, the procedures, techniques, and variables used to evaluate the hypotheses are described. The fourth section describes the results. In the fifth section, theoretical contributions, practical implications, and limitations and recommendations for future investigations are presented. The notion of clustering has evolved. To better frame this design, understanding how clustering should be implemented is important. First, it is essential to define the policies and mechanisms associated with the basic principles of the cluster. Second, a set of indicators related to the cluster’s creation and operation is required. Then, the design tools used to correctly develop the cluster in order to deliver benefits to the economy must be observed. Third, the relationships between partners should be strengthened to improve the efficiency of the cluster (Iordache, Ciochină & Asanda, 2010). Porter (1998) stresses that cluster theory functions as an intermediary between networks and competition.
The Influence of Accessibility and Attractiveness Factors on the Development of the Azores Tourism Cluster
Antonia Canto, School of Business and Economics, University of the Azores, Portugal
Dr. Joao Couto, School of Business and Economics, University of the Azores, Portugal
Tourism is a growing activity around the world and has been discussed in a number of studies in different areas, including economics and management. Due to its growing importance in Portugal, particularly in the Azores, it has become a subject of interest for regional development. This study analyzes the configuration of the cluster of tourism in the Azores and determines the influence of accessibility and attractiveness on its development. For this purpose, we grouped the Azores islands according to their importance, dynamics, and efficiency of tourism cluster, and tested the influence of the accessibility and attractiveness factors. The results show that accessibility influences the dynamics of the tourism cluster, namely, the existence of direct links to the United States of America, but it also influences the number of inter-island air connections and the availability of maritime transportation for tourists. Attractiveness influences the efficiency of the tourism cluster, namely, occupancy rate and revenue per available room (RevPAR). This study contributes to a better understanding of the factors that affect the development of the tourism cluster in the Azores and their influence on the different islands. The tourism cluster comprises the competitiveness and economic progress of a certain geographical region, along with the social and cultural dynamics, and the quality of life of tourists and inhabitants (Cunha & Cunha, 2005). This translates into a cluster of companies and institutions, correlated with each other by the tourist product (Martins, Fiates & Pinto 2016). Some of the benefits associated with tourism clusters are more efficient and effective organization of tours as transport costs are minimized and the possibility of sharing infrastructure and advertising campaigns. Therefore, these clusters allow cooperation between enterprises in order to obtain a differentiated tourist product. Over the past few decades, tourism has become an important economic activity, as the impact of its direct, indirect, and induced effects have been significant (Truong & Shimizu, 2017). This sector drives the development and economic growth of the entire country, since it makes a positive contribution to production, employment, and the balance of services. To better understand the relationship between agents in the tourism sector and their organization, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the importance, the dynamics, and the efficiency of the tourism cluster in the Azores. The first hypothesis determines the importance of tourism within the islands of the Azores, while the second examines the dynamics of the tourism cluster, the third hypothesis tests the efficiency of the Azorean tourism cluster in the nine islands of the Azores, and the fourth hypothesis determines if the composition of the tourist cluster is influenced by attractiveness and accessibility factors. A quantitative methodology was applied to assess the importance, the dynamics, and the efficiency of the tourism cluster in the Azores. The technique used was cluster analysis, in particular, the k-means cluster methodology. Regarding the accessibility and attractiveness factors, the statistical method used was analysis of variance for numeric variables, and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. The present study is divided into five sections. The first focuses on the literature review of the concepts of accessibility and tourist attractiveness. The second section presents the conceptual model and the hypotheses to be tested. The third section describes the procedures, techniques, and variables used to test the hypotheses formulated. The fourth section presents the results obtained, and the fifth section describes the theoretical contributions, the practical implications, and, at the same time, the limitations and clues to future areas of research. The place to where tourists travel to consume a particular tourism product is designated as a touristic destination.
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Index: The Library of Congress, Washington, DC: ISSN: 1540 – 7780
Index: Online Computer Library Center, OH: OCLC: 805078765
Index: National Library of Australia: NLA: 42709473
Index: Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI.
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