The Business Review, Cambridge

The Business Review Journal

Vol. 28 * Number 1 * Summer 2020

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC   *   ISSN 1553 - 5827

Online Computer Library Center   *   OCLC: 920449522

National Library of Australia   *   NLA: 55269788

The Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI,

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The primary goal of the journal will be to provide opportunities for business related academicians and professionals from various business related fields in a global realm to publish their paper in one source. The Journal will bring together academicians and professionals from all areas related business fields and related fields to interact with members inside and outside their own particular disciplines. The journal will provide opportunities for publishing researcher's paper as well as providing opportunities to view other's work.  All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process. The journal is a refereed academic journal which  publishes the  scientific research findings in its field with the ISSN 1553-5827 issued by the Library of Congress, Washington, DC.  No Manuscript Will Be Accepted Without the Required Format.  All Manuscripts Should Be Professionally Proofread Before the Submission.  You can use www.editavenue.com for professional proofreading / editing etc...The journal will meet the quality and integrity requirements of applicable accreditation agencies (AACSB, regional) and journal evaluation organizations to insure our publications provide our authors publication venues that are recognized by their institutions for academic advancement and academically qualified statue.  The journal submission guideline can be seen at: submission guideline

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Observing the Impact of Engineering Curriculum on 6th Grade Students’ Attitudes Towards Engineering as They Engage in Building Electric Bikes

Gregg Olsen, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Dr. Geoffrey A. Wright, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Dr. Josh West, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

 

ABSTRACT

In the past few decades, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education has become a driving force for innovators throughout the world (Atkinson & Mayo, 2010; Bybee, 2010). STEM education has also become an economic factor in developing countries (Kennedy & Odell, 2014). Currently, the United States (US) is behind in STEM education compared to other nations, causing worry for the future innovators of the US (Atkinson & Mayo, 2010; Dugger, 2010). It was proposed that STEM education be reformed for K-12 in the US to cultivate a new generation of skilled scientists, technicians, engineers, and educators in science and math (Kennedy & Odell, 2014). STEM education helps to build world leaders including marketable and knowledgeable employees because it teaches and exposes students to problems in the real world, especially in their community (Brown, Brown, Reardon, & Merrill, 2011; Gomez & Albrecht, 2013). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to answer the question: how does implementing more engineering in STEM education impact student attitudes toward engineering for 6th graders? The method for implementing more STEM was to teach students about engineering in a hands-on maker activity which involved multiple engineering components embedded in a real-world problem. The activity required students to make electric bikes, while analyzing transportation to and from school. This activity exposed the students to principles of mechanical engineering, civil engineering, city planning, and public health. The data was collected using two methods. The first used a survey instrument called the Technology and Engineering Attitudes Scale (TEAS), the second method involved interviewing participants. The results reveal that student interest in engineering increased after participating in the study. On a national level, the Federal government issued the STEM Strategic Plan in December 2018 for the five years following to focus on providing “high-quality STEM education” to all Americans, as well as the US becoming “the global leader in STEM literacy, innovation, and employment.” Ed.gov/stem (CITE) The objective or goal in promoting STEM education is to provide the US and other countries with more technology and engineering leaders in colleges and universities (Brown, 2011; Dugger, 2010). STEM education helps to build world leaders including marketable and knowledgeable employees because it teaches and exposes students to problems in the real world, especially in their community (Brown, Brown, Reardon, & Merrill, 2011; Gomez & Albrecht, 2013). The goal is to integrate two, three, or all four of the disciplines within STEM education to find solutions to meaningful problems (English, 2016; Kennedy & Odell, 2014). When students can recognize real problems, then they can use concepts in a meaningful way. Problematizing the content allows for “opportunities for encouraging students to generate questions proposals, and challenges in order to make sense of concepts, rather than assimilating concepts and facts” (Ayar, 2015, p. 1660). These efforts to use STEM education to solve real-world problems will bring a zeal for learning in such a way that the students will “seek out the facts and remember them long after the problem has been solved” (Gomez, 2013, p. 14).

 

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Effects of the Economic Policies Applied in Turkey on the Banking Sector 1960 – 2020

Dr. Birgul Fındıklı, Nisantasi University, Istanbul, Turkey

 

ABSTRACT

The banking sector has become one of the most rapidly developing and expanding sectors in Turkey and been used as a tool for national development. The banking sector has taken its place as an important sector with a role in the generation of income, business and tax revenues, alleviating the problems of balance of payments, and contributing to economic developments by means of the economic policies applied. The Turkish banking sector has made significant developments, especially since the 1980s, and has become one of the sources making great contributions to the country’s economy.  The sector has an important role in creating new employment opportunities, reducing unemployment,  and eliminating of the problems of balance of payments. Therefore, the banking sector may be considered a key sector in Turkey’s economic development strategy. The purpose of the study is to provide information regarding the place of the banking sector within the Turkish economy as a result of the economic policies applied in Turkey and evaluate the sector’s historical development.  The aim of the economic policies applied in Turkey is to increase investments and expenditures by ensuring that the banking sector provides reliable funding at the lowest cost and ensuring that production and demand are increased depending thereon.  In this study, the economic developments experienced in Turkey from 1960 to today and the effect of the economic policies applied to the banking sector have been examined. We have explained how the banking sector changed depending on the economic policies applied within Turkey’s historical development. We have attempted to reveal the positive effects of the banking sector on national income, gross domestic product, balance of payments, employment, and investment.  With a view to bring stability to the economy in Turkey, a planned development model was implemented in the early 1960s due to the fact that economic measures commenced in 1958 did not provide the expected success. In this period, an industrialization policy aimed at producing domestic goods and finished goods was planned. By means of the development plans having been put into force, the economy started to be administered and import-substitution polices were implemented, which would be followed by abandoning liberal economic policies (Kepenek and Yentürk, 2005: 142-147).  From 1960 to 1980, more statist policies were adopted, which differed from the previous period in which the government intervened in the economy. In these years, a model meant to support industrialization was applied by way of import-substitution polices and customs duties, import prohibitions, and various restrictions. As a requirement of the import-substitution industrialization model, the Turkish economy adopted a self-enclosed economy. In this period, the State Planning Organization (DPT –State Planning Organization) was established and “Five-Year Development Plans” were prepared (Kuyucuklu, 1996: 199). 

 

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The Relationship Between Instruction Expenditures and Public High School Completion in Hawai‘i: A Case Study

Dr. Larson Ng, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i

 

ABSTRACT

The following study attempted to analyze the impact of instruction expenditures on public high school completers on all of the public school districts in Hawai‘i. Essentially, a correlation and bivariate regression procedure were employed to determine the nature and econometric relationship between instruction expenditures and high school completion from 2000 to 2007. Although instruction expenditures had increased for all high school districts, increases in completion were only observed in the Central, Leeward, and Maui districts. Moreover, although only the Central and Leeward districts showed econometrically positive relationships towards completion, the Windward, Kauai, and the Big Island districts showed econometrically negative relationships. Consequently, it remained unclear whether additional expenditures in instruction lead to higher levels of high school completion as a whole in Hawai‘i during 2000 to 2007.  Instruction is a critically important factor that contributes to high school completion. Although there are many techniques to measure the productivity of instruction, assessing its effectiveness through a financial perspective remains one practical way to accomplish this task (Beard, 2009). In a time with ever dwindling education budgets, it behooves educational leaders to be vigilant that their specific allocation of funds results in the greatest returns to the community they serve. Especially for high school administrators, they should particularly be aware how their financial commitment to instruction translates into high school completion. Consequently, this study will attempt to investigate whether increases in instruction expenditures result in higher numbers of high school completion by analyzing the Hawai‘i’s Department of Education’s (DOE) high school instruction expenditures (i.e., teacher salaries and benefits, substitutes, instructional paraprofessionals, pupil-use technology, software and instructional materials, trips, and supplies) and its econometric relationship with high school completers in Hawai‘i (Hawai‘i Department of Education, n.d.). With this research, it is hoped that the results will provide a snapshot of whether increased instruction funding does improve public high school completion.  Based on Table 1, high school instruction expenditures have been consistently increasing on an average of 6.3% with a standard deviation of $5,777,270 per year, respectively. The lowest increase in high school instruction expenditures was seen during 2000 to 2001 and its highest increase seen during 2002 to 2003. Graduating classes has been slowly declining during this period and had a very low negative average growth rate of -0.7% with a standard deviation of 96 students per year, respectively. The smallest graduating class was reported in 2003 and its largest reported in 2000. Completers also experienced a similar trend during this time frame with a very low negative average growth rate of -0.7% and a standard deviation of 99 students per year, respectively. The lowest number of completers was recorded in 2003 and its highest recorded in 2000.

 

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Understanding Corporate Governance in The European Union: Comparative Analysis of Codes of Best Practices in the Selected Member States

Dr. Darko Tipuric, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business, Croatia

Lana Cindric, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business, Croatia

Astrid Elizabeth Pranjic, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business, Croatia

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the role that codes of best practices have in shaping corporate governance practices in the European Union (EU). The main objective of the paper is to investigate the differences between codes of best practices in the selected European Union member states concerning the type of institution that has initiated their adoption. The paper highlights the importance of corporate governance codes for shaping corporate governance practices in the EU countries. The presented results are interesting from both scientific and expert points of view. The key findings indicate codes initiated by different professional bodies have numerous similarities. Differences are, however, evident concerning the requirements on disclosure compliance, the control over the degree of compliance, the instructions on how to present the level of compliance, the types of principles and appendices, or the comprehensiveness of the code.  The field of corporate governance is of great interest to both the business world and the legislative and regulatory bodies, the media and the general public, given that corporate governance concerns a large number of different stakeholders. The area of corporate governance itself, at its core, deals with management structures and processes of business systems. Corporate governance codes are systematically regulated set of corporate governance principles, standards and best practices that are neither legally nor contractually binding which is why they are often referred to as soft laws (Baraibar-Diez, Odriozola & Fernández Sánchez, 2015). As such, codes represent guidelines for the present and future conduct of directors, managers and employees and they come in different forms and cover a variety of topics (Eijsbouts, 2017). They are based on the so-called “comply or explain” principle, suggesting that each company can apply the recommendations that are contained in the code, or explain the reasons why the recommendations have not been implemented (Cuomo, Mallin, & Zattoni, 2016). The principles contained in the corporate governance codes relate to internal corporate governance and they cover topics such as shareholder relations, board structure and practices, and corporate transparency (Baraibar-Diez, Odriozola & Fernández Sánchez, 2015). Codes of best practices are primarily designed for listed companies but are also applicable to non-listed companies, state-owned enterprises, financial institutions, and charities (Cuomo, Mallin & Zattoni, 2016).  Corporate governance codes can be designed at three levels: international, national or individual level for each company. International codes are issued by transnational institutions such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to promote good corporate governance practices around the world. Then there are codes issued individually or collaboratively by several institutions within countries such as the stock exchanges to influence positively corporate governance practices in the particular national environment. The last group of codes is issued by an individual company for the sake of presenting the corporate governance principles that this company has accepted to all stakeholders (Cuomo, Mallin, Zattoni & 2016). Corporate governance codes have become crucial instruments over the years containing values, norms, and rules that have been identified as important to the behavior of all those who act on behalf of the company. They are a prerequisite for the responsible management of the company, but also the basis for obtaining the necessary legitimacy and a critically important instrument in the process of obtaining and retaining the legal and social license to work (Eijsbouts, 2017).

 

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Understanding Influencers on Women in STEM – Specifically Engineering

Joshua Luchs, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Dr. Geoffrey A. Wright, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Angela Brady, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

 

ABSTRACT

This article presents the finding from investigating why women university students choose to stay or leave engineering majors. A hybrid research model using literature review, focus group interviews, and a survey was used to collect data. The results reveal that over 69% of women left engineering within two semesters. 42% said they were pushed away, i.e., 65% said they were dissatisfied with learning in a way they enjoyed; and just over 60% said they did not feel a social belonging). Additionally, women who left engineering majors said that they wanted more real-world applications that would have social impact and involve more creativity.  Due to underrepresentation of women within STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), extensive research has been poured into developing methods and understanding on how to support women representation in these fields. While the imbalance of gender representation is widely documented (National Science Board | Science and Engineering Indicators, 2018), it is debated among the political community whether or not gender representative imbalance is an issue necessary to address. This debate branches from the varying theories given to explain differing gender occupational choices. These theories primarily involve: societal gender stereotypes, perceived gender expectations, lack of female role models/participation, and naturally differing interests between men and women. Despite the perceived ambiguity on the necessity of a broad-scale intervention, studies suggest that the field of STEM education is in particular need of improvement in this matter. A report by the National Center for Educational Statistics (2014) revealed that more women than males left STEM degrees. This is demonstrated by a female drop-out ratio of 32:14 (32% women leaving STEM degrees to pursue a non-STEM degree and 14% women leaving STEM degrees to drop-out of school entirely) compared to a male ratio of 26:24 (26% leaving STEM degrees for non-STEM degrees and 24% leaving to drop out of school). While the determination of men to leave STEM degrees appears balanced in purpose, the female determination appears more influenced by a dissatisfaction with the STEM educational experience than it is by the higher education experience. Marth and Bogner (2018) propose that, “primarily for girls, the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects seem to fail to meet expectations, and to determine later career choices” (pp. 225).  In accordance with these claims, the ratio difference above represents a lacking ability of higher education programs to retain women already pursuing STEM interests. In the case of education, at least, the understanding of female influencers and experiences in STEM presents the opportunity to improve program management and classroom pedagogies. As such, it is the aim of this study to answer which influences impact female interest in STEM most prominently, thereby determining which factor(s) can be used to improve female STEM education in practical and non-imposing ways.  To accomplish this purpose, a review of literature was collected to provide preliminary data about the factors which most prominently affect female interest and STEM educational experiences. Adding to this review, qualitative data was collected via focus group interviews to understand the individual narrative experience of women who have left engineering degrees for other degrees. A third research effort included creating and administering a survey to two groups: 1) all female students in engineering majors, and 2) those who left engineering majors.

 

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A New Paradigm: Creating a Different Kind of University

Dr. Ayse Olcay Costello, Eastern Illinois University, IL

Dr. Thomas G. Costello, Eastern Illinois University, IL

 

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we highlight the difficulties that are rippling through the U.S. higher education system. These difficulties are predominantly caused by both disruptive changes in technologies used in education delivery and increasing fiscal pressures that are visited upon institutions of higher education. The fiscal pressures themselves have multiple sources. For one, U.S. State’s want to spend less money on higher education to balance their budgets. For another, the general public questions the cost efficiency and effectiveness of institutions of higher education, especially since politicians debate whether higher education, at least in public institutions, should be free. If public higher education becomes free, then serving it at the lowest cost possible may become an even more pressing issue. Students who graduate with a substantial debt to cover their costs of higher education, as well as employers who hire them, also question the efficiency and effectiveness of higher education institutions. In this hostile environment, institutions of higher education find themselves in a situation where they must do more with smaller and less certain budgets. To do-more-with-less, administrative structures become more bureaucratic and tenure is questioned. As a result, many think that the quality of education declines. In this paper, we propose a new paradigm for higher education to counter these headwinds that reduce the quality of U.S. higher education. Specifically, we propose a paradigm, which can increase the quality of higher education while also decreasing its costs of provision.  Universities in the U.S. are in turmoil due to strong headwinds created by developments that range from burgeoning disruptive technologies (e.g., online content delivery allowing universities to reach students who are geographically dispersed), to enhanced fiscal discipline mandated by state legislators who are battling their own budget issues (Costello, Costello and Nelson, 2017; Curnalia and Mermer, 2018). Many smaller regional state universities that do not offer Ph.D. programs find themselves losing students to the competition from distant universities who lure their potential students via online delivery. These smaller regional universities also lose students to larger Ph.D.-granting state universities, which may even be located in their own state, that now try to increase their own enrollment at the expense of their smaller sister schools. The bigger universities take this action so that they can make up for the taxpayer money that is drying up to support public higher education.  An interesting example of this dynamic can be seen in the divergent fortunes of two state universities that are in close proximity to each other. Eastern Illinois University located in Charleston, IL is very close to the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (the two universities are less than 60 miles apart). Although being ranked as one of the top regional universities in the U.S. (U.S.News, 2020), Eastern Illinois University struggles with declining enrollment, financial struggles, and tension between its administrators and faculty (Toledo, 2018). There is debate among Eastern Illinois University’s stakeholders regarding strategic options available to increase university enrollment, which is crucial for the university to move forward. Some stakeholders think that all will be solved if the faculty agree to do more with less and the university sharpens its focus on being the school of choice for rural students who want personalized attention from the faculty. Others, on the other hand, recognize that times are changing and even a regional university needs to get into the business of online curriculum delivery.  The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign is certainly not making things easy for its smaller counterpart in Charleston. It is growing as fast as it can by recruiting the best students in Illinois and beyond (U.S.News, 2019). The larger Ph.D.-granting university sees this frenzied recruitment effort as a means to make sure that its future success is guaranteed even if the fiscal situation of Illinois deteriorates.

 

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Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the journal.  You are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of any information (text; pictures; tables. etc..) from this web site or any other linked web pages is strictly prohibited. Request permission / Purchase this article:  jaabc1@aol.com

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Index: The Library of Congress, Washington, DC:    ISSN: 1540 – 7780

Index: Online Computer Library Center, OH:   OCLC: 805078765 

Index: National Library of Australia: NLA: 42709473

Index: Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI.

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